Bodybuilding Supplements - Weight Training Protein


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Adequate Intake: The amount of a nutrient that healthy people should aim for each day, set when there isnít enough scientific evidence to determine an RDA.


Vitamin A (a.k.a. pre-formed Retinol;Beta-Carotene)
Benefits: Promotes growth and repair of body tissue, healthy eyes, good night vision and a strong immune system.
Where you get it: Liver and fish oils, whole and fortified milk and eggs. Carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach and other leafy green veggies, yellow squash, peaches and apricots provide Beta and other carotenes.
RDA: 700 mcg for adult women; 900 mcg for adult men.
Upper Intake Level (UL): 3,000 mcg for adults.
WARNING: Vitamin A can be toxic in large doses, and when taken during pregnancy can cause birth defects. Your body stores excess vitamin A so don't exceed the RDA.

Amino Acids
Benefits: Building blocks that make up proteins like hormones, enzymes and proteins in tissues and muscle. There are nine essential amino acids that we need to get from food; the body can make the other 11.
Where you get them: Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products and beans.
DRI or RDA: N/A

Androstenedione
Benefits: Androstenedione exerts its anabolic effect as a result of an enzyme conversion reaction in the liver. When you take androstenedione an enzyme in the liver acts on the molecular structure of androstenedione, and through this one reaction converts it to testosterone.
Where you get it: Androstenedione is an adrenal androgen that is produced naturally in the body.
RDA: 100 milligrams upon wakening. ē 100 milligrams 45 to 60 minutes before you train.


Vitamin B-1 (a.k.a. Thiamin)
Benefits: Helps convert food into energy, nerve functions, growth and muscle tone.
Where you get it: Wheat germ, pork, whole and enriched grains, dried beans, seeds, and nuts.
RDA: Between 1.1 to 1.5 mg for adults.

Vitamin B-2 ( a.k.a. Riboflavin)
Benefits: Releases energy, keeps red blood cells healthy, makes hormones.
Where you get it: Dairy products, meats, poultry, whole and enriched grains, and green vegetables such as broccoli, turnip greens, asparagus, and spinach.
Tidbit: High doses of B-2 may help prevent migraine headaches.
RDA: Between 1.3 to 1.7 mg for adults.

Vitamin B-3 (a.k.a Niacin)
Benefits: Releases energy, important for a healthy digestive system, blood circulation, nerve function, appetite.
Where you get it: Poultry, fish, whole and enriched grains, dried beans, and peas.
RDA: Between 15 to 19 mg for adults.

Vitamin B-5 (a.k.a Pantothenic Acid)
Benefits: Converts food into energy, necessary to make important hormones, vitamin D, and red blood cells.
Where you get it: Found in almost all foods.
DRI or RDA : None.

Vitamin B-6 (a.k.a Pyridoxine)
Benefits: Helps convert food into energy, keeps red blood cells healthy, makes antibodies, maintains nerve function, enhances the immune system, helps prevent heart disease.
Where you get it: Poultry, fish, pork, eggs, and whole grains.
Tidbit: Small doses of B-6 may help alleviate morning sickness. Check with your doctor.
RDA: Between 1.6 to 2.0 mg for adults.
Watch Out: B-6 in high doses can cause balance difficulties, nerve injury.

Vitamin B-12 (a.k.a Cobalamin)
Benefits: Releases energy from food, keeps red blood cells healthy, helps maintain the nervous system, boosts the immune system, helps prevent heart disease.
Where you get it: Dairy products, lean beef, fish, poultry, and eggs.
RDA: 2 mcg for adults.

Beta-Carotene (a.k.a. pre-formed Retinol;Vitamin -A)
Benefits: Promotes growth and repair of body tissue, healthy eyes, good night vision and a strong immune system.


Biotin
Benefits: Metabolizes fats, proteins and carbohydrates, helps in the transfer of carbon dioxide and assists in various metabolic chemical conversions.
Where you get it: Cheese, beef liver, cauliflower, eggs, mushrooms, chicken breast, salmon and spinach.
Suggested Daily Value: 300 mcg for adults.

Vitamin C
Benefits: Helps wounds heal, strengthens blood vessels, builds connective tissue,healthy gums, skin and promotes strong teeth and bones. May boost immunity.
Where you get it: Citrus fruits, strawberries, green and red peppers, collard and mustard greens, broccoli, spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, kiwi, guava and parsley.
RDA: 75 mg for women, 90 mg for men.

Calcium
Benefits: Supports bones, teeth, muscle tissue, regulates the heartbeat, muscle action, nerve function, blood clotting.
Where you get it: Dairy products, calcium-fortified orange juice or soy milk, salmon with bones, and green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, kale, and collards.
DRI: 1,000 mg for adults.

Cholesterol
Benefits: Makes cell membranes, hormones. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is often called "bad" cholesterol because too much in your blood can cause heart disease. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is often called "good" cholesterol because it helps remove LDL .
Where you get it: Meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, and eggs.
DRI or RDA: None.

Chromium

Benefits: Acts cooperatively with other substances to control insulin and certain enzymes.
Where you get it: Cheese, whole grains, meat, peas, beans and blackstrap molasses.
AI: 35 mcg for men, 25 mcg for women.

Copper
Benefits: Formation of red blood cells, pigment, bone health.
Where you get it: Nuts, black pepper, blackstrap molasses and cocoa.
RDA: 900 mcg for adults.
Upper Intake Level (UL): 10 mg for adults.

Creatine
Benefits: Hydrates muscle cells with H2o and speeds up recovery time.New research has shown that creatine can help buffer lactic acid that builds-up in the muscles during exercise, this is what causes that "burning" sensation.
Where you get it: Our body produces creatine (it is made in the liver) and we also can get creatine from our diet. At any given time the average person has about 120 grams of creatine stored. Consists of three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine.
RDA: 5 g.
Click here for more detailed information on Creatine

Vitamin D

Benefits: Calcium and phosphorus metabolism, aids bone growth and integrity, promotes strong teeth.
Where you get it: Fortified milk, egg yolks and fatty fish, like herring, kipper and mackerel.
DRI: 5-10 mcg for adults.

DRI
Dietary Reference Intakes: A joint collaboration with Canada and the US, DRIs are revised recommendations for vitamins and minerals from the Institute of Medicine, an arm of the National Academy of Sciences, which will gradually replace the Recommended Dietary Allowances or RDA guidelines. DRIs are being developed for vitamins and minerals that currently have no RDAs.

Vitamin E
Benefits: Antioxidant powers protect cell membranes, essential for red blood cells, aids cellular respiration and protects lung tissue from pollution.Also used for the repair of stretchmarks.
Where you get it: Vegetable oils, wheat germ, green leafy vegetables, seeds, nuts, seafood, apples, carrots and celery.
RDA: 15 mg alpha-tocopherol for adults

Essential Fatty Acids
(a.k.a. Omega-3 and Omega-6)
Benefits: Make cell membranes, hormones, and prostaglandins.
Where you get them: Vegetable oils such as canola, flaxseed, walnut, corn, soybean, and safflower oils, fish, and fish oil supplements.
Tidbit: Flaxseed oil is a great source of omega-3s, but not for cooking because heat destroys them.
DRI or RDA: None.

Fiber
Benefits: Lowers cholesterol and blood sugar levels, helps move waste through the intestines. Diets rich in plant fiber are related to a reduction of heart disease, colon cancer and diabetes.
Where you get it: Fruits, vegetables and whole-grains.
Tidbit: If you're upping your fiber intake, do it slowly to avoid stomach upset. Also, drink lots of water.
DRI or RDA: None.

Flax Seed Oil
Benefits: Several scientific studies show that consumption of omega-3 oils leads to a substantially lower risk of death from coronary heart disease. Until recently, experts believed the best sources of omega-3 were fish oils. However, flax seed oil contains twice as much omega-3 essential fatty acids as fish oil products, without the fishy aftertaste.

Cholesterol reducing- (the perfect fat to include on a Ketogenic or Atkins diet) Anti-lipogenic (they block fat storage)

Anti-catabolic- (they prevent muscle breakdown) Increase lipolysis and beta oxidation (Fat burning -- even the brown fat cells in the love handles) Improve insulin sensitivity (Keeping blood sugar levels down and metabolism high)

Increase thermogenesis - (Slightly elevated body temperature promotes faster fat burning)

Adding flaxseed oil to your foods, or taken with a meal, creates a feeling of satiation (feeling of fullness and satisfaction following a meal). The essential fats in flaxseed oil cause the stomach to retain food for a longer period of time as compared to no-fat or low-fat foods. The addition of Flax Oil to food results in a gradual release of nutritients into the small intestine. The physiological effect is a slow, sustained rise in blood sugar, then a prolonged plateau of blood sugar. Ultimately, the blood sugar undergoes a slow and gradual drop. You will experience a corresponding feeling of prolonged energy, stamina and satisfaction with no immediate hunger pains following the meal. The net result is that you feel fuller, longer and, actually eat fewer calories in the long run than if you would have chosen a no-fat or low-fat diet.
Where you get it: Nutrition stores, Grocery Store.
RDA:Flax Seed Oil will impart health benefits by itself or it can be added to any supplement program to enhance results. Typical doses are 1 tablespoon two to three times daily. Or athletes will take 1 tablespoon per 75lbs of bodyweight. .

Folate
Benefits: Helps cells grow and divide, reduces risk of certain birth defects,important for red blood cells and crucial in creating amino acids.
Where you get it: Green leafy vegetables, dried beans, liver, poultry, fortified cereals, oranges and nuts.
Tidbit: Pregnant women or women trying to conceive are often told to take folate.
RDA: 400 mcg for adults.

Fluoride
Benefits: Dental health.
Where you get it: Tea, fish eaten with their bones, processed foods, and treated drinking water.
DRI: Between 3.1 to 3.8 mg for adults.

Glutamine (L-Glutimine)
Benefits: Glutamine is known to promote anabolic conditions in muscle cells and increase the rate of protein synthesis. It is also proven to promote nitrogen retention (a positive nitrogen balance) and prevent the loss of muscle protein. This amino acid also has been proven to aid in the recovery of numerous other human ailments. (Click here for detailed info)
Where you get it: Foods of animal origin, such as meat and poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products, are the richest dietary sources of the essential amino acids.
RDA:

Iodine
Benefits: Making thyroid hormones that control metabolism.
Where you get it: Lobster, shrimp, bread, milk and iodized salt.
RDA: 150 mcg for adults.
Upper Intake Level (UL): 1.1 mg for adults.

Iron
Benefits: Making hemoglobin in blood and myoglobin in muscle, which supply oxygen to cells.
Where you get it: Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, whole and enriched grains, and green leafy vegetables.
RDA: 8 mg for men, between 8 and 27 mg for women.
Upper Intake Level (UL): 45 mg for adults.
WARNING: Iron supplements even in small amounts can be toxic to young children. Keep iron and multis with iron out of reach.

Vitamin K
Benefits: Helps blood clot.
Where you get it: Green beans, green leafy vegetables, dairy products, eggs, meats, cereals, fruits and vegetables.
AI: 90 mcg for women and 120 mcg for men.


Magnesium
Benefits: Enzyme activation, nerve and muscle function, and bone growth.
Where you get it: Nuts, meats, leafy vegetables, whole grains, beans and legumes.
Tidbit: Magnesium supplements may help ward off migraine headaches.
DRI: Between 280 to 300 mg for women, 350 to 400 mg for men.

Manganese
Benefits: Essential for reproductive function, physical growth, normal formation of bones and cartilage and normal brain function.
Where you get it: Whole grains and cereals, fruits, vegetables and tea.
AI: 2.3 mg for men, 1.8 mg for women.
Upper Intake Level (UL): 11 mg for adults.

Molybdenum
Benefits: As a component of three different enzymes, it's involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) iron and food converts food into energy. Helps breakdown toxic build ups of sulfites in the body. May help prevent cavities.
Where you get it: Milk, lima beans, spinach, breads, liver and cereals.
RDA: 45 mcg for adults.
Upper Intake Level (UL): 2 mg for adults.

Monounsaturated fats
Benefits: A nutrient that provides dietary energy without raising cholesterol levels.
Where you get them: Olive oil, canola oil, and peanut oil.
DRI or RDA: None.

Niacin (a.k.a Vitamin B-3)
Benefits: Releases energy, important for a healthy digestive system, blood circulation, nerve function, appetite.
Where you get it: Poultry, fish, whole and enriched grains, dried beans, and peas.
RDA: Between 15 to 19 mg for adults.

Pantothenic Acid (a.k.a Vitamin B-5)
Benefits: Converts food into energy, necessary to make important hormones, vitamin D, and red blood cells.
Where you get it: Found in almost all foods.
DRI or RDA : None.


Phosphorus
Benefits: Helps form bones and teeth, builds muscle and is involved in almost all metabolic actions in the body.
Where you get it: Milk, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, whole grains, seeds and nuts.
DRI: 800 mg to 1,200 mg for adults.

Polyunsaturated fats
Benefits: A nutrient that provides dietary energy without raising cholesterol levels.
Where you get them: Corn oil, safflower seed oil, sunflower seed oil, sesame oil, soybean oil and fish oil.
DRI or RDA: None.

Potassium
Benefits: Helps keep blood pressure down and aids muscle contractions, aids healthy electrical activity in the heart and rapid transmission of nerve impulses throughout the body.
Where you get it: Dried fruits, most raw vegetables, citrus fruits, molasses, and sunflower seeds.
DRI or RDA: None.

Protein
Benefits: Keeps the body running, made from different combinations of amino acids, your muscles building blocks..
Where you get it: Meat, eggs, dairy products(i.e.Whey), beans, whole grains, and vegetables.
RDA: Between 46 and 63 g for adults.

Riboflavin ( a.k.a. Vitamin B-2 )
Benefits: Releases energy, keeps red blood cells healthy, makes hormones.
Where you get it: Dairy products, meats, poultry, whole and enriched grains, and green vegetables such as broccoli, turnip greens, asparagus, and spinach.
Tidbit: High doses of B-2 may help prevent migraine headaches.
RDA: Between 1.3 to 1.7 mg for adults.


RDA
Recommended Dietary Allowances: Nutrient intake recommendations from the Institute of Medicine, an arm of the American Academy of Sciences. RDAs are safe levels of intake for essential nutrients, based on current scientific knowledge. They are set to meet the known nutrient needs or practically all healthy people. RDAs have been around and updated regularly for more than 50 years. RDAs are gradually being replaced by revised guidelines called Dietary Reference Intakes or DRIs.

Saturated fat
What it does: Shown to raise cholesterol, associated with a risk of heart disease.
Where you get it: Butter, lard, meat, poultry, whole-milk dairy foods, palm oil, and coconut oil.
DRI or RDA: None.

Selenium
Benefits: Works with vitamin E as an antioxidant and binds with toxins in the body, rendering them harmless.
Where you get it: Lobster, clams, crabs, whole grains, Brazil nuts and oysters.
RDA: 55 mg for women and 70 mg for men.

Sodium
Benefits: Regulates and balances the amount of fluids outside the cells in the body. Aids in muscle contractions and nerve function.
Where you get it: Processed foods and table salt.
DRI or RDA: None.

Thiamin (a.k.a. Vitamin B-1)
Benefits: Helps convert food into energy, nerve functions, growth and muscle tone.
Where you get it: Wheat germ, pork, whole and enriched grains, dried beans, seeds, and nuts.
RDA: Between 1.1 to 1.5 mg for adults.

ULs
Upper Intake Levels: The largest amount of a nutrient that healthy people can take each day without being placed at increased risk of adverse health effects.

Zinc
Benefits: Essential for normal growth, development and immunity. Helps maintain skin, hair and bones. Keeps reproductive organs functioning and helps in the perception of taste and the ability to see at night.
Where you get it: Beef, poultry, liver, oysters, eggs and dairy products.
RDA: 8 mg for women and 11 mg for men.
Upper Intake Level (UL): 40 mg for adults.



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References:

National Academy of Sciences (NAS), National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances 10th Edition, Washington, DC: NAS Press, 1989.

Ekhard E. Zeigler and L.J Filer, Jr, Eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 7th Edition. Washington DC: International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), 1996.